Tuesday, January 19, 2010

The Evolution & Development of `Ulum al-Qur’an

`Ulum al-Qur'an appeared early with the dawn of Islam. The first generation of believers used to meet in the house of Al-Arqam to memorize, recite, contemplate and learn the Qur'an. The most important forms of Qur'anic sciences were learned orally by the Companions and were not recorded for various reasons. Some of these reasons were:
1. Most of the Companions were illiterate and did not know how to read or write.
2. The tools for writing were not easily accessible to them.
3. The Prophet's (peace and blessings be upon him) order: "Do not take down anything from me, and he who took down anything from me except the Qur'an, he should efface that." (Narrated by Abu Said al-Khudri. Collected by Muslim No. 7147).

Note that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) later authorized the writing of his Hadith. Scholars give many reasons for this, including the concern that the Qur'an might be confused with Hadith or other sayings, or because the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) wanted to show that the duty of conveying the Message is not restricted to the scribes, and Allah Knows best.

The Companions were pure Arabs whose spoken language enabled them to comprehend the meanings of the Qur'an and their sincerity guided them to internalize and manifest the Qur'an in their character and behavior. Ibn Mas`ud (may Allah be pleased with him) said: "The man amongst us used to learn no more than ten verses till he knew their meaning and acted upon them" ( tafseer of at-Tabari, vol. 1, p. 80.). He also said: "By the One besides whom there is no other god, I know where and why every verse of Allah's Book was revealed" (Al-Bukhari).

During the caliphate of `Uthman (may Allah be pleased with him), events led to the preparation of the standard copy of the Qur'an known as the Mushaf which refers to the sheets on which the Qur'an was collected during the time of the Companions. The copy of the Qu'ran from the time of `Uthman (Al-Mushaf Al-Imam) was sent to various countries. `Uthman's order to transcribe the Qur'an paved the way for what was later called `Ilm Rasm al-Qur'an or `Ilm ar- Rasm al-`Uthmani (The Science of Qur'anic Transcription).

`Ali (may Allah be pleased with him), during his caliphate, ordered Abu al-Aswad al-Da'uli (d. 69 H) to affix Tashkil to the Qur'anic manuscript based on Arabic grammar. ( Tashkil is the name for the signs indicating the vowels in Arabic script. It helps to determine the correct pronunciation of words and to avoid mistakes). For this reason `Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) is regarded as the founder of `Ilm I`rab al-Qur'an (The Science of Qur'anic Syntax).

Most of the Companions were renowned for their authoritative exegetical ( tafseer ) expertise, especially the four Righteous Caliphs, Ibn `Abbas, Ibn Mas`ud, ‘Ubay bin Ka`ab, Ibn az-Zubair, Zayd bin Thabit, Abu Musa al-Ash`ari, `A'ishah and others (may Allah be pleased with them all).

As Islamic conquests extended, the Companions scattered throughout the newly established Muslim lands to teach the people the Qur'an and its interpretation and sciences. Their efforts led to the development of centers and schools of tafseer. The most prominent of these were:

1. The school of Ibn `Abbas in Makkah
2. The school of ‘Ubay bin Ka`ab in Madinah
3. The school of Ibn Mas `ud in Kufah
The schools of the Companions and their students, at-Tabi`in (lit. the Followers), were not restricted to teaching tafseer but also included ` ilm gharib al-Qur'an, `ilm asbab an-nuzul, `ilm an-nasikh wa al-mansukh, and other sciences. Until today, these Qur'anic sciences are learned and transmitted orally.

• Ar-Rumi, Fahd. Dirasat fi `Ulum al-Qur'an.
• As-Salih, Subhi. Mabahith fi `Ulum al-Qur'an.
• Al-Qattan, Manna'a. Mabahith fi `Ulum al-Qur'an.
• As-Suyuti, Jalaluddin. Al-'itqan fi `Ulum al-Qur'an.

`Ulum Al-Qur’an and its Significance

The Noble Qur'an, the Word of Allah, is the final Revelation sent down to humanity through Allah's Messenger Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), the Seal of the Prophets. It is a unique Book that supports the previous revelations and restores the eternal message and truth of Allah the Almighty. It represents the first and primary source that constitutes the way of life and code of conduct, the Straight Path, known as Islam.
The message of the Qur'an contains guidance and wisdom in the form of laws, stories, parables, and arguments for those who have an intellect. Hence, it is essential for the believer to deeply understand the meanings and implications of the Book of the Creator in order to truly reflect and correctly act upon it. For this purpose, ever since the Muslims received the Qur'an, they have not only dedicated themselves to its message, but also to its setting and framework that serve to facilitate its understanding and implication. Their application and preoccupation with issues related to the understanding of the Qur'an led to the development of disciplines and branches of knowledge that are known as `Ulum Al-Qur'an (the sciences of the Qur'an).
`Ulum al-Qur'an has become an inseparable part of Qur'anic education because it has indispensable knowledge for correctly understanding and internalizing the Qur'an. It is regrettable to note that there are very few texts available for the Muslim English reader to assist him or her in learning the Qur'an. The aim of this column is to fill this gap and help towards understanding the Qur'anic message by introducing disciplines related to its circumstances, setting, and framework.
`Ulum al-Qur'an is, therefore, defined as the branch of knowledge concerned with investigating and studying the Qur'an. Its subjects involve the following:
• The evolution and development of this discipline
• The various names and lexical meanings of the Qur'an
• Nature of revelation (wahi)
• Method of collection (jam`) and preservation (hifzh) of the Qur'an
• Oral and written transmission of the Qur'anic revelation
• Exegesis (tafseer)
o Schools of tafseer
o Methods of tafseer
o Ta'weel and deviant exegeses
o Conditions required of the exegete (mufassir)
o The scholars of tafseer and their books
• Recitations (qir'aat)
o The Seven Forms (sab`at ahruf)
o The dialects of Quraysh
o Tajweed
• Reasons and occasions of revelation (asbab an-nuzul)
• Makkan and Madinan surahs
• Abrogation (an-nasikh) and abrogated (al-mansukh) verses
• The muhkamat and mutashabihat verses (clear and ambiguous verses)
• Form, language, and style of the Qur'an
• The virtues of the Qur'an and the etiquettes of its recitation
• The distinctive features and miraculous nature of the Qur'an
• Other issues related to Qur'anic studies of special importance today
o The scientific trends in the Qur'an: a contemporary miracle
o The stance of orientalists, colonialists, and missionaries towards the Qur'an
o Translation and interpretation of the Qur'an

Read more:

By Living Shari`ah Staff

sumber daripada internet..

Bukti-bukti Kesejarahan

Al-Quran Al-Karim turun dalam masa sekitar 22 tahun atau tepatnya, menurut sementara ulama, dua puluh dua tahun, dua bulan dan dua puluh dua hari.

Ada beberapa faktor yang terlebih dahulu harus dikemukakan dalam rangka pembicaraan kita ini, yang merupakan faktor-faktor pendukung bagi pembuktian otentisitas Al-Quran.

(1) Masyarakat Arab, yang hidup pada masa turunnya Al-Quran, adalah masyarakat yang tidak mengenal baca tulis. Karena itu, satu-satunya andalan mereka adalah hafalan. Dalam hal hafalan, orang Arab --bahkan sampai kini-- dikenal sangat kuat.

(2) Masyarakat Arab --khususnya pada masa turunnya Al-Quran-- dikenal sebagai masyarakat sederhana dan bersahaja: Kesederhanaan ini, menjadikan mereka memiliki waktu luang yang cukup, disamping menambah ketajaman pikiran dan hafalan.

(3) Masyarakat Arab sangat gandrung lagi membanggakan kesusastraan; mereka bahkan melakukan perlombaan-perlombaan dalam bidang ini pada waktu-waktu tertentu.

(4) Al-Quran mencapai tingkat tertinggi dari segi keindahan bahasanya dan sangat mengagumkan bukan saja bagi orang-orang mukmin, tetapi juga orang kafir. Berbagai riwayat menyatakan bahwa tokoh-tokoh kaum musyrik seringkali secara sembunyi-sembunyi berupaya mendengarkan ayat-ayat Al-Quran yang dibaca oleh kaum Muslim. Kaum Muslim, disamping mengagumi keindahan bahasa Al-Quran, juga mengagumi kandungannya, serta meyakini bahwa ayat-ayat Al-Quran adalah petunjuk kebahagiaan dunia dan akhirat.

(5) Al-Quran, demikian pula Rasul saw., menganjurkan kepada kaum Muslim untuk memperbanyak membaca dan mempelajari Al-Quran dan anjuran tersebut mendapat sambutan yang hangat.

(6) Ayat-ayat Al-Quran turun berdialog dengan mereka, mengomentari keadaan dan peristiwa-peristiwa yang mereka alami, bahkan menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan mereka. Disamping itu, ayat-ayat Al-Quran turun sedikit demi sedikit. Hal itu lebih mempermudah pencernaan maknanya dan proses penghafalannya.

(7) Dalam Al-Quran, demikian pula hadis-hadis Nabi, ditemukan petunjuk-petunjuk yang mendorong para sahabatnya untuk selalu bersikap teliti dan hati-hati dalam menyampaikan berita --lebih-lebih kalau berita tersebut merupakan Firman-firman Allah atau sabda Rasul-Nya.

Faktor-faktor di atas menjadi penunjang terpelihara dan dihafalkannya ayat-ayat Al-Quran. Itulah sebabnya, banyak riwayat sejarah yang menginformasikan bahwa terdapat ratusan sahabat Nabi saw. yang menghafalkan Al-Quran. Bahkan dalam peperangan Yamamah, yang terjadi beberapa saat setelah wafatnya Rasul saw., telah gugur tidak kurang dari tujuh puluh orang penghafal Al-Quran.4

Walaupun Nabi saw. dan para sahabat menghafal ayat-ayat Al-Quran, namun guna menjamin terpeliharanya wahyu-wahyu Ilahi itu, beliau tidak hanya mengandalkan hafalan, tetapi juga tulisan. Sejarah menginformasikan bahwa setiap ada ayat yang turun, Nabi saw. lalu memanggil sahabat-sahabat yang dikenal pandai menulis, untuk menuliskan ayat-ayat yang baru saja diterimanya, sambil menyampaikan tempat dan urutan setiap ayat dalam surahnya. Ayat-ayat tersebut mereka tulis dalam pelepah kurma, batu, kulit-kulit atau tulang-tulang binatang. Sebagian sahabat ada juga yang menuliskan ayat-ayat tersebut secara pribadi, namun karena keterbatasan alat tulis dan kemampuan maka tidak banyak yang melakukannya disamping kemungkinan besar tidak mencakup seluruh ayat Al-Quran. Kepingan naskah tulisan yang diperintahkan oleh Rasul itu, baru dihimpun dalam bentuk "kitab" pada masa pemerintahan Khalifah Abu Bakar r.a.

baca lagi...

Monday, January 18, 2010

مباحث في علوم القران

مباحث في علوم القران
الدكتور محمود لطفي محمدجاد
الستاد المساعر
(1417) ْه – 1996 م

جامعة الاسلامية الحكومية بقدح

Penjelasan Ilmu – ilmu Al – Quran

Penjelasan Ilmu – ilmu Al – Quran

Pengarang : Sheikh Muhammad Ali As – Shabani
Terjemahan : M .S HAFID MASYHARI
Nama buku asal : AL – TIBYAN FI’ ULUM AL – QURAN.

Mengenal ilmu , sejarah & kandungan Al- Quran

Mengenal ilmu , sejarah & kandungan Al- Quran

Pengarang – Ammar Fadhil
Cetakan – tahun - 2007
Syarikat – PTS Islamika

PTS Publications & Distributors Sdn , Bhd.

No 3 Jalan Industri Batu Caves 1 /6 ,
Taman Perindustrian Batu Caves ,
68100 Batu Caves ,Selangor .

Sejarah & kaedah Pendidikan Al –Quran .

Sejarah & kaedah Pendidikan Al –Quran .

Pengarang : Mohd Yusof Ahmad
Cetakan : 1. 2000
2. 2002
3. 2004

Syarikat Penerbit : Penerbit Universiti Malaya .

Universiti Malayaو 50603 Kuala Lumpur .

Dicetak Oleh : Penerbit Universiti Malaya .
50603 Kuala Lumpur .

Saturday, January 16, 2010

antara kitab-kitab arab yang menjadi rujukan

sebahagian rujukan daripada kitab-kitab arab:

علوم القران من خلال مقدمات التفاسر
محمد صفاء شيخ ابراهيم حفى
استاذ التفسير و علومالقران
بجامعة الامام محمد بن شعود الاسلامية
المجلد الاول
مؤسسة الرسالة
2.المجلد الثاني
) حقوق الطبع محفوظة( لطبعة , لاول 1425 - 2004 م

وطى المصيطة – شارع حبيب ابي شهلا
بناية المسكن و بيروت – لبنان
3.مباحث في علوم القران
الدكتور محمود لطفي محمدجاد
الستاد المساعر
1417) ْهه – 1996 م (

جامعة الاسلامية الحكومية بقدح